top of page



Olmstead, M.C. & Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2015).  Comparative Cognition.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


Olmstead, M.C. & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2015). Comparative Cognition Instructor’s Manual.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.  (Online)


Rutherford, M.D. & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (Eds.) (2013).  Social Perception: Detection and Interpretation of Animacy, Agency, and Intention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.

Refereed Journal Articles, Commentaries, & Reviews

ManyDogs, P., Espinosa, Stevens, J. R.J., Alberghina, D., Alway, H.E.E., Barela, J.D., Bogese, M., Bray, E., Buchsbaum, D., Byosiere, S.E., Byrne, M., Cavalli, C.M., Chaudoir, L.M., Collins-Pisano, C., DeBoer, H.J., Douglas, L.E.L.C., Dror, S., Dzik, M.V., Ferguson, B., Fisher, L., Fitzpatrick, H.C., Freeman, M.S., Frinton, S.N., Glover, M.K., Gnanadesikan, G.E., Guran, C.-N. A., Goacher, J.E.P., Golanska, M., Guran, C.-N.A., Hare, B., Hare, E., Hickey, M., Horschler, D.J., Huber, L., Jim, H.L., Johnston, A.M., Kaminski, J., Kelly, D.M., Kuhlmeier, V.A., Lassiter, L., Lazarowski, L., Leighton-Birch, J., MacLean, E.L., Maliszewska, K., Marra, V., Montgomery, L.I., Murray, M.S., Nelson, E.K., Ostojic, L., Palermo, S.G., Parks Russell, A.E., Pelgrim, M.H., Pellowe, S.D., Reinholz, A., Rial, L.A., Richards, E.M., Ross, M.A., Rothkoff, L.G., Salomons, H., Sanger, J.K., Santos, L., Schirle, A.R., Shearer, S.J., Silver, Z.A., Silverman, J.M., Sommese, A., Srdoc, T., St. John-Mosse, H., Vega, A.C., Vekony, K., Volter, C.J., Walsh, C.J., Worth, Y.A., Zipperling, L.M.I., Zoledziewska, B., Zylberfuden, S.G. (2023). ManyDogs 1: A multi-lab replication study of dogs' pointing comprehension. Animal Behavior & Cognition, 10(3), 232-286.

Shore, M.J., Bukovsky, D.L., Pinheiro, S.G.V., Hancock, B.M., Liptrot, E.M., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2023).  A survey on the challenges, limitations, and opportunities of online testing of infants and young children during the COVID-19 pandemic: Using our experiences to improve future practices. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1160203. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1160203

ManyDogs, P., Alberghina, D., Bray, E., Buchsbaum, D., Byosiere, S., Espinosa, J., Gnanadesikan, G.E., Guran, C.-N. A., Hare, E., Horschler, D.J., Huber, L., Kuhlmeier, V.A., MacLean, E.L., Pelgrim, M.H., Perez, B., Ravid-Schurr, D., Rothkoff, L., Sexton, C.L., Silver, Z.A., & Stevens, J. R. (2023). ManyDogs Project: A big team science approach to investigating canine behavior and cognition. Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews, 18, 59-77.

Karasewich, T.A., Hines, C., PInheiro, S.G.V., Buchenreider, N., Dunfield, K.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2023). Shyness as a barrier to prosocial behaviour: When do shy children help and comfort other people? Frontiers in Psychology, 14 [Supplemental Materials]

Norris, M.E., Swartz, M., & Kuhlmeier, V.A.. (2023). The importance of copyright and shared norms for credit in open educational resources. Frontiers in Education, 7  [Supplemental Materials]

MacGowan, T.L., Karasewich, T.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2023). Developmental and evolutionary models of social fear can address "the human fear paradox".  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 46, 40-41. 

McCreary, M.K., Jones, S.V.R., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2022). Following the human point: Research with nonhuman animals since Povinelli, Nelson, and Boysen (1990). Learning & Behavior. 

[View Preprint] [Supplemental Material]


Holden, O.L., Norris, M.E., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2021).  Academic integrity in online assessment: A research reviewFrontiers in Education, 6, 258.  

Hilton, B.C., O'Neill, AC., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2021).  Emerging selectivity: Group membership and early prosocialityJournal of Cognition and Development, 22(2), 267-280.

Kuhlmeier, V.A., Karasewich, T.A., & Olmstead, M.C. (2020).  Teaching animal learning and cognition: Adapting to the online environmentComparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews, 15, 187-198. [Supplemental Materials]

Lamontagne, S. J., Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Olmstead, M.C.  (2020).  Comparative cognition and cognitive ecology in the classroom. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, 74, 176-182.

[View Preprint] [Supplemental Material

Karasewich, T.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2020).  Trait social anxiety as a conditional adaptation: A developmental and evolutionary framework.  Developmental Review, 55, 100886.

[View Preprint]


Karasewich, T.A., Kuhlmeier, V.A., Beier, J.S., & Dunfield, K.A.  (2019).  Getting help for others: An examination of indirect helping in young childrenDevelopmental Psychology, 55, 606-611.  

[View Preprint]  [View Data and Supplemental Material]


Hilton, B.C., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2019). Intention attribution and the development of moral evaluation.  Frontiers in Psychology: Developmental Psychology, 9:2663.


Dunfield, K.A., Best, L.J., Kelley, E.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2019).  Motivating moral behavior: Helping, sharing, and comforting in young children with autism spectrum disorderFrontiers in Psychology: Developmental Psychology, 10:25.


O'Neill, A.C., Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Craig, W. (2018).  Examining the association between parenting and psychosomatic problems:  Self-esteem as a mediator across ages in early adolescence.  International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 24(2), 137-148.


O'Neill, A.C., Swigger, K., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2018). Make The Connection’ parenting skills program: a controlled trial of associated improvement in maternal attitudes.  Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 36(5), 536-547.

[View Preprint]


Sabbagh, M.A., Koenig, M.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2016). Conceptual constraints and mechanisms in children’s selective social learningDevelopmental Science, 20, e12415.


Robson, S.J., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2016).  Infants’ understanding of object-directed action: An interdisciplinary synthesisFrontiers in Psychology: Developmental Psychology, 7:111.

Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Olmstead, M.C. (2016).  Keep Calm and Comp. Cog. On – Commentary on ‘A crisis in comparative psychology: where have all the undergraduates gone?’  Frontiers in Psychology: Comparative Psychology, 7:20.


Robson, S.J., Lee, V., Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Rutherford, M.D. (2014).  Infants use contextual contingency to guide their interpretation of others' goal-directed behaviorCognitive Development, 31, 69-78.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., Dunfield, K. A., & O’Neill, A. (2014).  Selectivity in early prosocial behavior. Frontiers in Psychology: Developmental Psychology, 5, 1-6.


Dunfield, K.A. & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013).  Classifying prosocial behaviour: children’s responses to instrumental need, emotional distress, and material desire. Child Development, 84, 1766-1776.


Dunfield, K.A., Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Murphy, L. (2013). Children's use of communicative intent in the selection of cooperative partnersPLOS One, 8 (4): e61804.


Lee, V. & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013).  Young children show a dissociation in looking and pointing behavior in falling eventsCognitive Development, 28, 21-30.


Dunfield, K.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013).  Evidence for partner choice in toddlers: Considering the breadth of other-oriented behaviours. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 88-89. [Commentary on: ​ ]


Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Robson, S.J.  (2012).  Diagnosing goal attribution: commentary on Hernik and SouthgateDevelopmental Science, 15, 725-726.


Dunfield, K.A., Kuhlmeier, V.A., O’Connell, L., & Kelley, E.  (2011).  Examining the diversity of prosocial behavior:  helping, sharing, and comforting in infancy. Infancy, 16(3), 227-247.


Newman, G.E., Keil, F.C., Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Wynn, K.  (2010). Early understandings of the link between agents and orderProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 17140-17145.


Camilleri, J.A., Kuhlmeier, V.A., Chu, J.Y.Y.  (2010). Recognizing helpers and hinderers depends on behavioral intentions of the character and psychopathic characteristics of the observer. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 303-316.


Dunfield, K.A., & Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2010).  Intention-mediated selective helping in infancy. Psychological Science, 21, 523-527.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., Troje, N., and Lee, V.  (2010). Young infants detect the direction of biological motion in point-light displaysInfancy, 15, 83-93.


Yamaguchi, M., Kuhlmeier, V.A., Wynn, K., & vanMarle, K.  (2009).  Continuity in social cognition from infancy to childhood Developmental Science, 12, 746-752.

Hallinan, E.V., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2008). Ontongeny, phylogeny, and the relational reinterpretation hypothesisBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 138-139.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Tzelnic, T.  (2007). How infants predict other people’s behavior.  Scientific American: Mind Matters.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. & Birch, S.A.J.  (2005).  Steps toward categorizing ‘motivation’:  Abilities, limitations, and conditional constraintsBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 706-707.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2005).  Symbolic insight and perseveration: Two problems facing young children on symbolic retrieval tasksJournal of Cognition and Development, 6, 365-380.

Kuhlmeier, V.A., Bloom, P., & Wynn, K.  (2004).  Do 5-month-old infants see humans as material objects?  Cognition, 94, 95-103.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P.  (2004).  People v. Objects: A reply to Rakison and ChicchinoCognition, 94, 109-112.


Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2004).  An inclusive primate psychology: Review of Primate Psychology.  American Scientist, September-October.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P.  (2003).  Attribution of Dispositional States by 12-month-oldsPsychological Science, 14, 402-408.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. & Bloom, P.  (2003).  You can dance if you want toBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 630-631. 


Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Boysen, S.T.  (2002).  Chimpanzees' recognition of the spatial and object similarities between a scale model and its referentPsychological Science, 13, 60-63.


Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2002).  Review of Matsuzawa, T. (Ed.), Primate Origins of Human Cognition and BehaviorAnimal Behaviour, 63, 829-830.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Boysen, S.T.  (2001).  The effect of response contingencies on chimpanzee scale model task performanceJournal of Comparative Psychology, 115, 300-306.


Kuhlmeier, V.A.; Boysen, S.T; & Mukobi, K.M.  (1999).  Scale model comprehension by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113 (4), 396-402.

Book Chapters

Olmstead, M.C., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2022). Comparative Cognition.  In A.R. Ridley, P. d'Ettorre, & T.M. Freeberg (Eds.), Rutledge Handbook of Comparative Psychology. Oxfordshire, UK: Rutledge.

[View Chapter] [Figure 1]

Kuhlmeier, V.A., Karasewich, T., & Dunfield, K.A. (2020).  Selective prosocial behavior in early childhood.  In J. Decety (Ed.), The Social Brain: A Developmental Perspective (pp. 247-262). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Kuhlmeier, V. A., Mayne, K., & Craig, W. (2019). Developmental Psychology. In M. E. Norris (Ed.), The Canadian Handbook for Careers in Psychological Science. Kingston, ON: eCampus Ontario. Licensed under CC BY NC 4.0.

Robson, S.J., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2017). Pretend Play.  In J. Vonk & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. New York, NY: Springer.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2017). Sarah “Sally” Boysen.  In J. Vonk & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. New York, NY: Springer.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013). The social perception of helping and hindering. In M.D. Rutherford & V.A. Kuhlmeier (Eds.), Social Perception.  Cambridge, MA: MIT/Bradford Press.


Rutherford, M.D., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013).  The interdisciplinary study of social perception.  In M.D. Rutherford & V.A. Kuhlmeier (Eds.), Social Perception.  Cambridge, MA: MIT/Bradford Press.


Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2013). Disposition attribution in infancy. In M. Banaji, & S. Gelmen (Eds.), Navigating the Social World:  What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us.  Oxford University Press.


Sabbagh, M., Benson, J., & Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2013).  False belief understanding in preschoolers and infants. In M. Legerstee, D. Haley, and M. Bornstein (Eds.), The Infant Mind: Origins of the Social Brain, Guilford Press.


Kuhlmeier, V.A., & Boysen, S.T.  (2003).  Animal Cognition.  In Macmillan Publishers Limited, Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.


Boysen, S.T. & Kuhlmeier, V.A..  (2002).  Representational capacities for pretense with scale models and photographs in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  In R. Mitchell (Ed.), Pretending and Imagination in Animals and Children.


Boysen, S.T., & Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2002). Representational Capacities in the Chimpanzees: Numerical and Spatial Reasoning.  In B.M.F. Galdikas, N.E. Briggs, L.K. Sheeran, G.L. Shapiro, and J. Goodall (Eds.), All Apes Great and Small Volume 1:  African Apes. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 


Boysen, S.T., & Kuhlmeier, V.A.  (2001).  Conceptual capacities of chimpanzees. In B.Beck et al. (Eds.), Great Apes and Humans:  The Ethics of Coexistence.  Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press.


Boysen, S.T.; Kuhlmeier, V.A.; Halliday, P.; & Halliday, Y.  (1999).  Tool use in captive gorillas. In S. Parker,  R.W. Mitchell & H.L. Miles (Eds.), The Mentalities of Gorillas and Orangutans: Comparative Perspectives (pp.179-187).  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Science Communication, Knowledge Translation, & Reports

Burrows, H.M.R., McCreary, M.K., Shore, M.J., Pinheiro, S.G.V., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (accepted). Animals helping animals: How dog detectives can help us save endangered speciesFrontiers for Young Minds.

Jones, S.V.R., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2020).  How do police dogs learn to do their job?  Frontiers for Young Minds.

Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2017).  Summary of research on canine cognition and behaviour in relation to the training of police dogs.  Prepared for Kingston Police K9 Unit: Kingston, Ontario, Canada.


Swigger, K., O'Neill, A.C. & Kuhlmeier, V. A. (2017). Outcome Evaluation of the “Make the Connection” 0-12 Parenting Program.  Toronto Public Health. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

O’Neill, A.C., & Kuhlmeier, V.A. (2016). “Make the Connection” Program Evaluation: Internal Report.  Prepared for Toronto Public Health: Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

bottom of page